文件 high2 unit23.1.doc
【 抛砖引玉 】
get together， all the best ， have a word with ， in other words ， excellent ， chat ， connect … with ， hire ， wind ( vt . ) ， strengthen ， frequently ， recover ， smart ， distant ， lately ， interrupt ， remind ， lack ， due ， income ， announce ， bargain ， sew ， needle ， thread ， frequent ， free of charge ， dial ， have … on conversation ， handle ( n . ) ， directory ， telephone ，
1. Hello . Can I speak to … , please? There is no … here .
2. I\'m sorry . I think I dialled the wrong number .
3. Hello . Is that … ? I called to ask／tell you …
4. Hold on . I\'ll go and get …
5. Please could I have a word with … ?
6. I\'ll have to ring off now . Someone wants to use the phone .
1 . 主语从句：复合句中充当主语的从句叫主语从句。如：
That he is ready to help others is well - known .
( that 引导主语从句在从句中没有含义，也不充当成分，但不宜省略。 )
Whether he will attend the meeting is not decided . ( 不用 if 引导主语从句。 )
其他的连接词还有 who , what , which , when , where , how , why 等。如：
Which team will win the match is still unknown .
What we need is your help .
How he became a famous musician is known to all .
主语从句做主语，句子显得不太平衡，因此常将它移到名子后面，前面用引导词 it 来作形式主语。如：
It\'s a pity that she had made such a mistake .
2 . 表语从句：用作表语的从句叫表语从句。如：
That is why I didn\'t attend the meeting .
I didn\'t know it . That is because I didn\'t attend the meeting .
They are just what I\'m looking for .
其他连词还有 that , whether , as if , who , which , when , where , how , why 等。
3 . 同位语从句：用作同位语的从句，叫同位语从句。
它一般跟在抽象名词 ( 如 idea , news , fact , possibility 等的后面，用以说明名词所表示的具体内容。引导同位语的词有连词 that , 连接副词 how , when , where 等。如：
The idea that computers will recognize human voices surprises many people .
The possibility that the majority of the labour force will work at home
is often discussed .
1 ) 同位语从句的连接词 that 在从句中不充当成份，没有实际含义，而定语从句的连接词 that 在从句中常做主语或宾语。如：
The news that he told us just now is exciting . ( 定语从句 )
The news that our team won the game is exciting . ( 同位语从句 )
2 ) 同位语从句的连接词 that 在从句中不能省略，而定语从句的连接词 that 如果在从句中充当宾语，可以省略。如：
The news that he told us just now is exciting .
句中的 that 在从句中做 told 的直接宾语，所以可以省略。
3 ) 同位语从句常用连接词 that , 连接副词 when , where 等常用于 have no ( some ) idea 后。如：I have no idea when he will be back . ( 同位语从句 ) = I don\'t know when he\'ll be back .
I will never forget the day when I joined the army . ( 定语从句 )
【 指点迷津 】
1 . ［ 误 ］I\'m very afraid he\'s out .
［ 正 ］I\'m very much afraid he\'s out .
［ 析 ］very 不能修饰 afraid , asleep , awake , alone , alive 等表语形容词，这类形容词要用其他副词修饰。如：be wide awake , be fast ( deep , sound ) asleep , be quite alone , be very much alive。
2 . ［ 误 ］The situation seems to be very improved .
［ 正 ］The situation seems to be very much ( much ) improved .
［ 析 ］在没有形容词化仍有动词性的现在分词和过去分词之前不能用 very , 应用 very much 或 much。very 只能修饰 amusing , disappointing , exciting , interesting , moving , pleasing , satisfying , devoted , interested , learned , pleased , surprised , tired , worried 等形容词化的分词。
3 . ［ 误 ］I\'m very tired that I can\'t walk a bit farther .
［ 正 ］I\'m so tired that I can\'t walk a bit farther .
［ 析 ］very 不能替代 so…that 和 too…to 中的 so 和 too 修饰其形容词和副词。so…that 与 too…to 属于固定句型结构。
4 . ［ 误 ］It was very impossible for her to catch the 9 o\'clock train .
［ 正 ］It was quite impossible for her to catch the 9 o\'clock train .
［ 析 ］very 不能修饰 impossible , mistaken , different , right 和 wrong 等不可分等级的形容词。修饰这些词时，常用 quite。
5 . ［ 误 ］The book is very worth reading .
［ 正 ］The book is well worth reading .
［ 析 ］worth 是表语形容词，表示“很值得……”时，常用 well 修饰而不用 very。
6 . ［ 误 ］He is very anxious to leave .
［ 正 ］He is too anxious to leave .
［ 析 ］句式“主语 + 系动词 + ( only , , but ) too + adj . + to do sth . ”，意为“非常或 + 分……去干某事”，此时不用 very 代替 too。能用于这一句式的形容词有 anxious , eager , ready , pleased , glad 等。
【 学法指要 】
1 . hire 常用作动词，意为“雇用 ( 某人 ) ( = employ ) ；租借 ( 东西 ) ( = rent ) ”。例如：
They hired five more hands for the rice harvest .
They hired a concert hall with accommodations for 300 people .
2 . wind 用作动词时，为不规则动词，过去式和过去分词都是 wound , 可以表示“ ( 道路、河流等 ) 弯曲，蜿蜒； ( 把毛线等 ) 卷起，卷成球； ( 把某物 ) 卷在 ( 某物、人等 ) 上，缠绕；上紧 ( 发条 ) ”。例如：
The river winds through the jungle .
The road winds up the mountain .
Will you wind the wool into a ball?
3 . strong 用作形容词，其名词形式为 strength , 动词形式为 strengthen。例如：
Which do you think is stronger , a lion or a tiger?
He has a very strong will .
They took strong measures at last .
The light is too strong for this room .
This coffee is too strong for me .
He got his strength back slowly after his illness .
She doesn\'t have enough strength to walk upstairs .
We want to strengthen our ties with them .
4 . interrupt 意为“阻碍 ( 某人 ) ，打断 ( 某人 ) 的话；使 ( 工作、谈话等 ) 中断， ( 使 ) 终止”。例如：
Don\'t interrupt ( me ) while I am working .
I\'m sorry to interrupt you , but there\'s someone to see you .
A flash interrupted the program .
5 . lack 既可用作名词，意为“欠缺，不足”；也可用作动词，意为“缺少……， ( 对 ) ……不充裕”。例如：
The project failed due to lack of money .
Lack of heat made us cold .
She lacked the experience to get the job .
They are so rich that they lack for nothing .
6 . need 既可用作实义动词，也可用作情态动词，意为“需要”。
①用作实义词时，其后通常跟名词，带 to 的不定式或动词 - ing 形式作宾语。例如：
I need your help .
Here are some exercises that need to be done after class .
Your telephone needs repairing ( = to be repaired ) .
“Need you go now?”“You , I must . ”
You needn\'t come to the meeting this afternoon if you have something important to do .
7 . announce 用作动词，意为“发表……，宣布……，告知”，其名词形式为 announcement。
The government announced its new economic policies .
The news was announced to the public on TV .
Please announce to your class that there will be no school tomorrow .
A warm sunshine announces the coming of spring .
I\'d like to make an important announcement .
8 . recognize 用作及物动词，意为“认出；辩认”。例如：
He didn\'t recognize me in my disguise .
I recognized his voice over the phone .
He refused to recognize her as his lawful heir .
We recognize that country as an independent state .
1 . All the best . 是临别时表示祝愿的用语，相当于“All the best wishes to you . ”的意思。也可以说：All the very best . 后面还可以加适当的状语。例如：
All the best in your new job .
All the best with your family .
All the best in your study／business .
2 . have a word with 意为“和……说句话”，其中的 a word 也可以用 a few words 代替，表示“ ( 说 ) 几句话”的意思。例如：
May I have a word with you?
I want to have a few words with you , are you free now?
The teacher would like a word with you in his office .
Is Miss Mary in? I\'d like to have a word with her .
3 . in other words 意为“换句话说；换言之”；而 in a ( one ) word 意为“总之，总而言之”；in words 意为“用语言，用文字”。例如：
They are not the revolutionary in deeds , but in words .
In a word , they are working very hard .
An apple a day keeps a doctor away . In other words , eating some fresh fruit every day will do good to people\'s health .
In other words , we can finish the work on time only in this way .
He has been working too much , and is not at all well . In other words , he needs holiday .
4 . bring along 意为“把……带来，领来”。例如：
I want to bring my friend along to see you .
Bring your suitcase along with you .
5 . be connected with 的意思是“与……有关” ( = to be related to ) 。例如：
I always considered your brother to be connected with that club .
The meeting was connected directly with this affair .
He is in no way connected with this business .
The discussion will be connected closely with our work .
6 . go wrong 意为“出了毛病”。“go + adj . ”表示“转变成……”，go 是连系动词，意为“变得”。这个结构常表示情况变坏。例如：
What can be done in order to make sure that no one in the world goes hungry?
The machines go wrong .
He went almost mad when he heard the news .
His illness is going worse .
7 . have on ( = be wearing ) 穿 ( 戴 ) 着，表示状态，无进行时态，但有动词 - ing 短语形式。例如：
The man having nothing on walked in the wools .
put on 表示穿的动作，wear 表示穿的状态。两者后均跟表示服装的名词作宾语，wear 还可以表示戴手表，眼镜，首饰，花等。in 表示穿的状态，但它除接表示服装的名词外，还可接表示颜色的名词。例如：
He put on his raincoat and soon disappeared in the rain .
The man , wearing black glasses , is in blue .
dress 既可用作及物动词，也可用作不及物动词。用作及物动词，后面只能跟表示人的名词或代词 ( 表示自己穿衣时用反身代词 ) ，不能跟表示服装的名词。例如：
After the bath , he dressed himself .
She hurriedly dressed her daughter and took her to the zoo .
The beggar was poorly dressed .
( 过去分词 dressed 用作表语，表示穿的状态。 )
Get up and dress quickly .
pull on , have on , put on 均为“动词 + 副词”构成的短语动词，这类短语动词当其后的宾语为名词时既可放在两词中间，也可放在副词后；若其后的宾语为代词时，则宾语只能放在两词中间，如“你今天不必戴帽子。”可译为：
You don\'t need to put on your cap today .
You don\'t need to put it on today . ( “it” refers to “your cap” here ; We can\'t say “put on it” )
8 . in case 用作连词，意为“在……的情况下，万一……的话”；“以防，免得”。例如：
In case anything important happens , please call me up .
Take a taxi in case you are late for the meeting .
In case I forget , please remind me of it .
in case of “万一，以防”，后面跟名词。如：
In case of fire , dial 119 .
Take your raincoat in case of rain .
1 . Would you like a word with her?你想和她说几句话吗?
a word = a few words 与某人说话交谈 have a word with sb . = have a few words with sb
1 ) Is Mary in? I want to have a few words with her .
与 word 有关的常用词组。
address a few words to sb . 对某人讲几句话 break one\'s word 失信，食言
not to breathe a word about sth .对某事只字不提 eat one\'s words 收回前言，承认说错
get word 获得消息，听说，得知 give one\'s word 保证，担保，允诺
have a word with 和某人谈谈 keep one\'s word 守信用，遵守诺言 match words with deeds 言行一致 in word 口头上
waste one\'s words 白费口舌 the last words 临终遗言
sharp words 苛刻的话 soft words 甜言蜜语
have no words for sth . 无法用语言形容某物 in a word 总之
2 . I\'ve already got something on this evening . 我今天晚上已有安排。
have sth . on 有 ( 约会，聚会等 ) 安排
I have nothing on tomorrow evening . 明天晚上我没有约会。
Do you have anything on for tonight?你今晚有什么事吗?
have…on 穿着，戴着 = wear。
Mary has a red dress on today .
What do you think of the tie he has on today?
3 . All the best . 祝你万事如意。
All the best 是临别时的祝愿用法， = All the best wishes to you . = All the very best， ( 可接状语 ) 。
All the best in your study . 祝你学习顺利。
All the best with your family . 祝你全家都好。
Good luck . Good luck with you . Good luck in the examination .
※ wish ( 常接双宾语 )
I wish you success . I wish you happiness .
※ hope ( 后接从句 )
I hope you have a good time . I hope everything goes well .
※ 以 have 开头的句子
Have a good time . Have a nice party . Have fun .
※ enjoy oneself
Enjoy yourself . 祝你玩得痛快。
4 . The operator connected the two numbers and made a note of the length of the telephone call and the charge . 接线员把两个号码接通，然后记下通话的时间和电话费。
make a note of 把……记下来 take a note of make notes of take notes of When you listen to a lecture , you should take／make a note of what the professor says .
If he rings up , take／make notes of what he says and then pass it on to me .
make／take a note／notes of 把……记下来
take note of 注意，理会
She pretended not to take note of me when she passed by .
Nobody took note of him when he stole into the classroom .
5 . These are some of the ways in which they can be used . 它们 ( 新式电话 ) 可以用于以下几种方式。
the ways 先行词，in which they can be used 是定语从句。
way + 定语从句 in shich／that
There are some of the ways ( that ) they can be used .
The way in which you are doing it is completely wrong . 你这么个干法，完全是错误的。 = The way ( that ) you are doing it is completely wrong .
means 和 method，方法 ( 前面的介词与 way 用法不同，并且在定语从句中，将介词放前时，不可用 that 替代，也不可省 )
The means by which you are doing it is completely wrong .
The method with which you are doing it is completely wrong .
6 . You can take it with you wherever you go…无论你走到哪儿……，你都可以带着它。
wherever ( conj ) 无论何地，不管……在哪里 ( 引导让步状语从句 ) ，wherever = no matter where。
Wherever he goes , I\'ll go with him . = No matter where he goes , I\'ll go with him .
wherever 引导名词性从句 ( 主语从句 ) 时不能将 wherever 改换为 no matter where。
Wherever he goes is none of my business .
No matter where he goes is none of my business . ( 对 )
whoever , whatever , whenever , however。用法与 wherever 相同。
7 . I want to remind you that we\'ve got a meeting next Monday . 我想提醒你我们下周一有个会议。
( 1 ) remind + sb . + of + sth。使 ( 人 ) 想起…
He reminds me of his father .
I was reminded of my promise .
( 2 ) remind + wb . + that…使某人想起 ( 某事 ) ，提醒，警告 ( 某人 )
She reminded me that I hadn\'t watered the flowers .
( 3 ) remind + sb . + to do . 使人想起做 ( 某事 ) ，提醒某人做 ( 某事 ) 。
Remind me to mail this letter .
I reminded him to work hard .
8 . It was just one piece of paper , printed on one side .
printed on one side 是过去分词短语作定语，用逗号隔开，它相当于一个非限制性定语从句 ( …，which was printed on one side ) 。又如：
It was the first building here , built in 1871 .
This is a newly - made satellite , used for communications .
Just now , a gentleman , called John Brown , came to see you .
( 6 ) The problem with electrical signals is that they get weaker and weaker as they travel along metal wires . 电话号的问题是，当它们沿着金属导线传送时，信号会变得越来越弱。
这个句子是个复合句，它包含一个由 that 引导的表语从句 they get weaker and weaker , 而这个表语从句后面又接了一个由 as 引导的时间状语从句 as they travel along metal wires .
weaker and weaker 越来越弱。这是“比较级 + and + 比较级”结构，表示“越来越……”的意思，在本句中作表语。例如：
Our country is becoming stronger and stronger .
More and more people have their telephones .
We hope that the telephone charges will get less and less expensive .
as 在此句中作连词，引出时间状语从句，常可以和 when 或 while 换用。例如：
I saw her as／when／while I was waiting for the bus .
I saw her as／when she was falling .
9 . They need to be strengthened every 3―4km . 电信号每隔3―4公里就需要增强。
( 1 ) to be strengthened 是不定式的被动式，作谓语动词 need 的宾语。strengthen
是由名词 strength ( 力量 ) 加后缀 - en 派生的动词。strengthen 作“加强”、“增强”解 ( make or become strong ) 。例如：
Our army is becoming greatly strengthened .
We must strengthen our national defence .
名词或形容词加后缀 - en，构成意思相近的动词，如：length ( 长度 ) →lengthen ( 加长 ) ，height ( 高 ) →heighten ( 加高 ) ，wide ( 宽的 ) →widen ( 加宽 ) ，deep ( 深的 ) →deepen ( 加深 ) ，short ( 短的 ) →shorten ( 缩短 ) 。
( 2 ) “every 3―4km . ”中的 km 是 kilometre ( 千米／公里 ) 的缩写。every 一般和单数名词连用，表示“每一……”，如 every minute ( 每分钟 ) ，every hour ( 每小时 ) 。若后面接 two 以上的数词，则需接复数名词，表示“每隔……”。例如：
The bus runs every 4―5 minutes .
Take the medicine every four hours .
10 . At the other end , the light signals are received and changed back into electrical signals and finally sound . 在受话的一端，被接收的光信号还原为电信号，最后变成声音。
这个句子是个简单句，主语是 the light signals , 有三个并列谓语，第一个是 are received , 第二个是 ( are ) changed back into electrical signals ( 其中 are 省略了 ) ，第三个是 ( are changed ) finally ( into ) sound ( 其中省略了 are changed…into ) ，这些省略都是为了避免重复。
11 . These are some of the ways in which they can be used . 它们 ( 电话 ) 可以用于以下几种方式。 ( 直译：这些是可以使用电话的几种方式。 )
ways 作“方式”、“方法”解，后接介词加关系代词 ( in which ) 引导的定语从句。有时 in which 也可省略。例如：
This was the way ( in which ) the nobles treated the peasants .
There was no way ( in which ) the dog in the satellite could be brought back to earth .
I don\'t like the way he talks .
That was the way she and her husband worked on their experiments .
【 妙文赏析 】
Benjamin Franklin , the well - known American politician , was once dining with a small party of distinguished ( 杰出的 ) gentlemen when one of them said , “The three of us here happen to be from three different countries : France , England , and America . Let each of us propose a toast ( 致祝酒辞 ) . ”And the other two agreed .
The Englishman stood up first . In a tone of British snobbery he said , “Here\'s to Great Britain , the sun that gives light to all nations of the earth!”
The Frenchman was rather astonished at this , but he proposed , “Here\'s to France , the moon whose magic rays move the tides of the world!”
Then Franklin rose to his feet . With an air of quaint modesty ( 带着不寻常的谦逊神情 ) ，he said , “Here\'s to our beloved ( 敬爱的 ) George Washington , the Jesus of America , who commanded ( 命令 ) the sun and the moon to stand still――and they obeyed!”
【 思维体操 】
1 . A Dream of Red Mansions 2 . Outlaws of the Marsh
3 . The Romance of the Three Kingdoms 4 . Journey to the West
5 . The Scholars 6 . Strange Tales from a Lonely Studio
7 . The Western Chamber 8 . Stories to Awaken Men
9 . Stories to Enlighten Men 10 . Stories to Warn Men
11 . Exposure of the Official World 12 . Outline of Herb Medicine
13 . Records of the Historian 14 . History as a Mirror
1 . 《红楼梦》 2 . 《水浒传》 3 . 《三国演义》 4 . 《西游记》 5 . 《儒林外史》 6 . 《聊斋志异》 7 . 《西厢记》 8 . 《醒世恒言》 9 . 《喻世明言》 10 . 《警世通言》 11 . 《官场现形记》 12 . 《本草纲目》 13 . 《史记》 14 . 《资治通鉴》
【 心中有数 】
that 引导的同位语从句。一般跟在某些抽象名词 ( 如 belief , fact , hope , idea , news , problem , possibility 等 ) 的后面，用以说明或解释前面的名词。例如：
The idea that computers will recognize human voices surprises many people .
引导同位语从句的词除连词 that 外，还有连接副词 ( how , when , where , why 等 ) 。例如：
I have no idea when Jack will be back .
He can\'t answer the question how he got the money .
We expressed the hope ( that ) they had expressed . ①
We expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again . ②
1 . 从语法的角度上看，引导同位语从句的 that 是连词，只起连接的作用，在从句中并不作任何句子成分；而引导定语从句的 that 是关系代词，除了起连接作用外，还在从句中作句子成分 ( 如句①中的 that 在从句中作宾语；句②中 that 只起连接作用 ) 。
2 . 从语义的角度上看，同位语从句与它前面的名词 ( 如 hope ) 是同位关系，表示这个“希望”的内容是“他们再来中国访问”；而定语从句与它前面的名词是所属关系，表示“……的”，起修饰作用。
3 . 同位语从句的连词 that 一般不能省略；而定语从句中的关系代词 that，当其在句中作宾语时，常常可以省略 ( 如句①中的 that 可以省略；句②中的 that 不能省略 ) 。
【 动手动脑 】
1 . pleased , pleasant
―Were you ______ with the trip?
―Oh , yes . It was quite ______ .
2 . through , though
______ it was raining hard , they made their way ______ the beating rain .
3 . pass , post , past
Did you see him ______ the ______ office at half ______ six this morning?
4 . fall , fill
I\'m very thirsty . Please ______ the glass with water , but don\'t let the glass ______ to the ground .
5 . below , blow
The wind from the valley ______ was ______ harder and harder .
6 . sit , set
When they ______ down at the table and asked for something to eat , the sun had already ______ behind the hill .
7 . cross , across
Can you swim ______ the lake? No , but I can ______ the river .
8 . probably , possibly
Maths is ______ the most important subject of science , but the boys don\'t ______ understand it .
9 . rise , raise
He ______ his head and said , “The living standard of the people has greatly ______ . ”
10 . quiet , silent
She is a ______ girl , so she often keeps ______ at the meetings .
11 . either , neither
Though there are flowers and trees on ______ side of the street , ______ side of the street is clean .
12 . clear , clean
It is ______ that every one of us must keep the room ______ .
1 . His ______ ( 发音 ) is improving .
2 . They are studying ______ ( 自然 ) science .
3 . The newsman told me some ______ ( 官方 ) news .
4 . The good news ______ ( 传播 ) quickly in the town .
5 . ______ ( 显然 ) ，he couldn\'t read it .
6 . The murderer was caught and ______ ( 绞死 ) .
7 . She helped her mother ______ ( 摆放 ) the table .
8 . Clinton had been reelected as the ______ ( 总统 ) of the USA .
9 . You\'ve grown so tall that I did not ______ ( 认出 ) you just now .
10 . Is this a weekly or a monthly ______ ( 杂志 ) ?
11 . This story is about a bright boy in a small village in ______ ( 欧洲 ) .
12 . The teacher is very ______ ( 耐心 ) with the slower children .
13 . She has lived in ______ ( 贫困 ) all her life .
14 . He was ______ ( 判决 ) to two years in prison .
15 . Tom has only got the ______ ( 第九 ) place .
16 . The article was written by Comrade Mao Tsetong in ______ ( 纪念 ) of Norman Bethune in 1939 .
17 . Are you ______ ( 紧张不安 ) in the dark?
18 . That man is twice my ______ ( 重量 ) .
19 . They crossed the desert in ______ ( 安全 ) .
答案：一、1 . pleased , pleasant 2 . Though , through 3 . pass , post , past 4 . feeling , fill , fall 5 . below , blowing 6 . sat , set 7 . across , cross 8 . probably , possibly 9 . raised , risen 10 . quiet , silent 11 . either , neither 12 . clear , clean 二、1 . pronunciation 2 . natural 3 . official 4 . spread 5 . Obviously 6 . hanged 7 . lay 8 . President 9 . recognize／recognise 10 . magazine 11 . European 12 . patient 13 . poverty 14 . sentenced 15 . ninth 16 . memory 17 . nervous 18 . weight 19 . safety
【 创新园地 】
1 . 生于1910年；
2 . 家贫，中学只读了三年，15岁离校；
3 . 当店员，自学数学，几年后写文章指出某教授书中的错误；
4 . 1931年清华大学请他去研究数学并任教；
5 . 40年代英、美的大学相继邀请他作为教授去任教；
6 . 解放后，他积极参加社会主义建设，帮助工农，关心青年；
7 . 他在作数学讲演时去世。
( 请同学们写好后把你的答案反馈给我们 )
Professor Hua Luogeng died several years ago . But we will always remember him .
Hua Luogeng was born in 1910 . Since his family was very poor at that time , he studied only three years in a middle school . He had to leave school at the age of 15 .
Then , working as a shop assistant , he began to study mathematics by himself . Several years later , he wrote an article to point out the mistakes in a certain professor\'s book .
People were surprised at his success . So Qinghua University asked him to do research work and teach mathematics there . In 1940s , some famous universities in Britain and America , one after another , invited him to teach as a professor .
When he heard that the People\'s Republic of China was founded , he decided to go back at once . He took an active part in the socialist construction of new China . With his knowledge of mathematics , he helped workers and peasants to settle a lot of problems in industry and agriculture . He also took great care of the youth .
Once when Professor Hua made a speech on mathematics , a sudden heart disease ended his life . He left the world when he was explaining what he had studied all his life .
时间： 2008-08-03 栏目： 高二英语教案