文件 high2 unit10.doc
标题 At the Tailor\'s Shop (在裁店缝)
Advice And Suggestions (劝告和建议)
● Idiomatic Sentences 功能套语
1. There seems to be something wrong with it . I can\'t possibly wear it . 这好象有点毛病，我不能穿了。
2. I would like you to change this for a new one . 我很想让你把这个给我换个新的。
3. You sold me so old a bike that I can\'t use it . I insist that you give me my money back . 你买给了我如此破旧的自行车，我就不能用。我要求你退我款。
4. It\'s not our fault . I\'m afraid I can\'t do that . Why can\'t you do something about it ? 这不是我的错，恐怕我作不了主，你能不能灵活点 ？
5. Could you give me some advice on English study ? 我想征求一下关于学习英语的建议。
6. I \'d like your advice about / on this plan .
7. What do you think I should do ?
8. You\'d better not trouble him . 你最好不要麻烦他。
9. Let\'s help him with the luggage .
10. Why not ask him to go with us ?
11. How / What about seeing a film ? 去看电影怎么样 ？
12. I strongly advise you to keep your promise .
13. I\'m afraid I can\'t follow your advice .
14. That\'s impossible , but thank you all the same . 这不可能，但还是要谢谢你的。
15. Why don\'t you put off the meeting till next week ? 你为何不把会议推迟到下周 ？
● Model Dialogues 交际示范
A：Hello . You look tired today . What happened ?
B：I went to bed too late . I was reading a novel and forgot the time .
A：Really ? You need a rest tonight .
B：Yes , I think so .
A：You\'d better go to bed earlier if you can .
B：Yes , you\'re right .
A：I\'ve lost my ruler . Have you seen it anywhere ?
B：Sorry , I haven\'t . You\'d better try your desk .
A：Yes , I did , but I didn\'t find it .
B：Why don\'t you ask Jim ? He was using a ruler just now .
A：Thanks . I\'ll go and ask him .
1. It looks / seems as if … 看起来好象 ……
It looks as if it is going to rain . 看起来天要下雨。
测试要点：as if = as though 后 接虚拟语气。如：
He talks as if he had been there many times . 他谈话的样子好象是他已经去过那里好多次了。
When a pencil is partly in a glass of water , it looks as if it were broken . 当一支铅笔部分放入一杯水中，它看起来就像是断了似的。
2. I insist (that) …
I insist he ( should ) write a letter of thanks to the school . 我坚持认为他应该向学校写个感谢信。
He insisted that he didn\'t steal the money . 他坚持说他没有偷那笔钱。
3. I should like / would like sb to do sth 很乐意让某人干……
I should like you go shopping this weekend . 我倒很想让你周末去买东西。
should like /love + to do 与简略回答。如：
－ Would you like to go swimming this Sunday ?
－ I\'d like / love to .
（用 to 代替 go swimming ）
should like / love sb to 很想让某人去干 ……
We\'d like our teacher to point out and correct our mistakes in our exercises . 我们很想让老师指出并改正我们作业中的错误。
should like / love + to be + done 喜欢被……
Little Jim would like to be taken to Beijing next Christmas .
4. Why don\'t you do … ? = Why not do … ? 为何不…… ？
Why don\'t you (= Why not ) have a look at the other blouses ? 为何不挑选一下别的衬衫 ？
单元词组 take place 透射出的隐型被动
在第 38 课中的词组 take place (发生)属\"隐形被动\"范畴 ，不用被动语态的形式。中学英语教材中还有一些不用\"be/get + 过去分词\"的结构，其具体表现形式如下：
◆ 有些词(组)常用主动形式表达被动意义 (break out ，take place ，belong to ，shut off ，turn off ，work out制定 ，add up to , run out 用完 ，give out耗尽 ，等) 如：
The lights on the wall turned off .
The incident took place in Dec.1936 .
◆ 动词不定式作定语，一方面与所修饰的名词或代词有动宾关系， 另一方面又与句子的主 语有逻辑上的主谓关系时，不定式常用主动式代表被表式。如：
Do you have any letters to post ? (对比：Manager wang , I\'ll go to the post office . Do you have any letters to be posted) ?
◆ 某些表示感觉、状态或特征的连系动词(look, sound, taste, smell, feel, become, appear, prove, turn out等)的主动形式常表被动意义。如：
－ Do you like the material ?
－ Yes , it ____ very soft . (NMET 94)
A. is feeling B. felt
C. feels D. is felt [ 答案：C ]
His theory proved correct .
Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth .
◆ 有些动词由\"vt\"变成的\"vi\"时， 常用主动形式与方式状语连用表被动意义，这类动词的主语常是物，该类常用动词有：sell , lock , fill , dry , run , open , cut , read, wear , write , translate , wash , shut , blow , digest , begin 等。如：
The door blew open . The book sells well .
This cloth wears long . The story won\'t translate well .
The food won\'t digest . The suitcase won\'t lock easily .
◆ 表\"需要\"的动词 (need , want , require , deserve , bear , demand) 后用动名词的主动形式，或不定式的被动式表被动；在 be worth 后只接动名词的主动形式表被动。如：
－ What do you think of the book ?
－ Oh , excellent. It\'s worth _____ a second time . (MET89)
A. to read B. to the read
C. reading D. being read [答案：C]
Your coat demands (requires , needs , wants) washing . (washing = to be washed)
He certainly deserves sending (= to be sent) to prison .
This telephone directory is well worth buying .
Several new railways are under _____ (建议 ) in China . (NMET96) [ 答案：construction]
常考的此类介词短语有：on show＝on exhibition , on sale , on fire , out of sight , in sight , under discussion , in the charge of , in the possession of , without help , without permission , under arrest , under repair , under consideration , under development 等。
◆ 有些以-able ，-ible 结尾的形容词 ( visible 可见的， invisible 无形的，breakable 的， drinkable 可饮用的 readable 可读的， acceptable 可接受的，respectable可尊敬的，countable 可数的，sensible可觉察的，等) 如：
The water in this well is drinkable(=fit to drink) . (19) Many things are invisible to us .
◆ 由过去分词转化而来的形容词 (pleased , interested , satisfied , frightened , worried, dressed , surprised , wounded , broken) 仍含有被动意义。如：
The girls are always dressed well .
The boy cried , with a glass broken .
◆ 使役动词 have/get＋宾语＋过去分词 ，表示该分词的动作由别人来完成。如：
－Good morning. Can I help you ?
－I\'d like to have this package ____ , Madame . (MET89)
A. be weighed B. to be weighed
C. to weigh D. weighed [答案：D]
I\'ll get my hair cut on Sunday .
◆ 有些名词以 -ee 结尾含被动意义 (以-er , -or 结尾却含主动意义) 。如：
trainee受训者(trainer训练员)，employe(e)雇员(employor雇主)，addressee收件人 (addresser, addressor发件人) ，rejectee被弃者 (rejecter抛弃者) 等。
◆ 当不定式在作表语(或宾补)的形容词(heavy , light , interesting , pleasant , simple, comfortable, dangerous , strong , big , small , sweet , smooth , nice , fit , important , impossible , necessary , good , easy, hard , difficult 等) 后面作状语， 且不定式与句中主语 (或宾语)在逻辑上有动宾关系时，常用主动形式表被动含义。如：
The chair looks rather hard , but in fact, it is very comfortable to _____ . (MET88)
A. sit B. sit on
C. be sat D. be sat on [答案：B]
They found the article hard to understand .
(注意：当不定式中的动词为不及物动词时需补上适当的介词。又如：This river is dangerous to swim in)
◆ 动词happen , last持续 ，let出租 ，blame责备 ，seek寻求 ， 等用主动形式表达被动意义。如：
It is I who am to blame .
This house is to let . 此房出租。
◆ 有些动词 (look , bake , burn , print…)的进行时态表被动意义。如：
Bread is baking .
The fish is cooking .
1. run ( ran , run ) 作不及物动词意思是\"颜色退色\"。褪
Will the colours run if the dress is washed ? 这衣服洗起来会不会掉颜色 ？
The red on his face ran . 他脸上的红润不见了。
Some colours run quickly in the sun . 有些颜色在阳光下很快就褪色了。
run forward 向前跑去。run first 跑了第一。run a temperature 发烧。run a factory 办工厂。run into 跑进，偶然遇到。sth + run out = become used up (主语常是时间、食物、金钱) 用完了 。sb + run out of + sth 用完了。例如：
His money soon ran out . 他的钱很快就用完了。
He is always running out of money before payday . 他老是发工资的日子还没有到就把钱给花完了。
Last Sunday he ran into his old friend in the street . 上星期天他在街上遇到他的老朋友。
2. foolish 愚蠢的，傻的，卤莽的，可笑的，荒谬的
It\'s foolish of me to do so . 我这样做真蠢。
That\'s a foolish action . 那是各愚蠢的行为。
You look foolish in that dress .
It was foolish of her to act that way . = How foolish of her to act that way . 她那样做该有多笨啊 ！
辨析 foolish （愚蠢）, stupid （笨）, silly（傻）
I think it\'s foolish of her to let pass such a fine opportunity to go abroad . 我认为她放弃这样一个出国的好机会是十分愚蠢的。
What a stupid boy he is ! 他是个多么笨的孩子啊 ！
You are not stupid , just lazy ! 你不笨，就是懒 ！
He is stupid in learning maths . 他学数学很笨。
I felt silly because I didn\'t know what to say . 我觉得很傻，因为我不知道说什么好。
Don\'t ask such silly questions ! 别再问这样傻的问题了。
3. insist vt.& vi. 坚持；坚决认为；坚决要求
He insisted that I was wrong . 他坚持认为我错了。
(1) insist on + doing 坚持做
She insisted on going to Beijing herself . 她坚持自己去北京。
Mother insisted on our going to Dalian by train . 母亲坚持要我们乘火车去大连。
(2) insist 后不接不定式，接宾语从句。表示坚持认为应该作某事时用可以省略 should 的虚拟语气；表示坚持说明自己的看法时不用虚拟语气。
He insisted that he wasn\'t a thief .
He insisted that I (should) finish this job alone .
He insists that he has done right . 他坚信自己做对了。
(3) insist on 主要是\"坚持\"意见、看法、主张。stick to 常指\"坚持\"原则、计划、决定，含有继续干或者接着干之意。
He insisted on this point . 他坚持这一点。
He insisted on knowing the fact . 他坚决要知道事实的真相。
But Einstein stuck to his theory and went on with his research .
We must stick to our plan .
Lao Chen always sticks to his promise .
4. depend 依赖，依靠，信赖，相信
(1) depend on / upon 依靠 ，信赖（不用被动语态，但在否定句中常用不定式的被动式）
He is a man to depend on .
He isn\'t a man to be depended on .
China doesn\'t depend on foreign countries .
Whether we will hold the sports meet depends on the weather .
You can depend on this newspaper .
You may depend on it that he will want to come .
Whether we can go for a picnic depends on our money .
(2) depend on sb for sth ; depend on sb to do sth
He depends on his neighbour for help .
All living things depend on the sun for their growth . 万物生长靠太阳。
(3) depend on / upon it 毫无疑问，没错
Depend on it , we will win this match .
(4) It （all） depends (on) + 从句\"要看……而定\"
It depends on whether you want to do it or not .
It depends what you think of it .
5. choice 选择，抉择
When you make friends , make a careful choice .
have no choice but / except to do 只有干……
He had no choice but to sing a song for us .
1. There seems to be something wrong with … 好象……有毛病
There seems to be something wrong with my radio .
2. or else 要不然，否则
Hurry up , or else you\'ll be late for this important meeting .
He must be drunk , or else he is mad .
3. follow the instructions 按照说明进行
It looks as if it hasn\'t been washed following the instructions . 好象没有按照衣服的说明要求去洗。
4. the fault of ……的过错
That is not the fault of our company .
5. give back 退还，归还
You must give back the book to him by tomorrow .
I hope you will give my money back next week .
Will you please give the ruler back to Tom ? = Will you please give Tom back the ruler ?
6. do something about 对……采取措施
Why don\'t you do something about the rubbish in front of your school ?
7. change A for B 用A交换B；换乘……车
I\'d like to change this dress for one in a larger size .
You have to take No. 101 at first and then change for the bus No. 101 .
8. in the sun 在阳光下
They stood in the winter sun , talking .
It\'s bad for you to read in the sun .
1. take place 发生，出现，举行
This dialogue takes place at a tailor\'s shop .
When and where did the accident take place ?
It took place on a rainy morning last week .
Great changes have taken place here since 1978 .
The dance will take place after school .
2. find sth rather expensive 发现……相当贵
3. try on 试穿
－Can I try on this pair of shoes ?
－ Sure , try it on , please .
4.have sth on / about / with + sb 身上带有某物
I don\'t have any small notes on me . 我随身没有带小钞票。
You had better have a pen on you .
Do you have any small change about you ? 你带有零钱吗 ？
Have you any notebook about you ?
Carry your driving licence with you .
have on 穿着（不用进行时态）
Today she has on a white blouse . = Today she wears a white blouse . = Today she is wearing a white blouse .
5. judge by / from 根据……来判断；从……来判断
We should judge a man by his deeds .
You shouldn\'t judge strangers always by the clothes he wears .
judging by / from 依……来判断 （作评注状语）
Judging by his words , he got angry .
6. pay for 支付费用；负担款项；付出代价
How much did you pay for the dictionary ?
Have those books been paid for ?
You will have to pay for your mistakes . 你总得为你的错误付出代价的。
7. put sb to the trouble of doing sth = trouble sb to do sth 麻烦某人干，为难某人干
I\'m sorry to put you to the trouble of helping me .
He didn\'t want to put me to the trouble of meeting him at the airport .
8. apologize to sb for sth = make an apology to sb for sth 因……向某人道歉
He made apologies to us for breaking the mirror .
9. just a moment / minute 等一会儿
10. worry about 担心，担忧，着急，发愁
Don\'t worry about it . It\'s nothing .
Worrying about your health will make you ill .
be worried about 为……担心，为……着急
Don\'t be worried about me , Mary .
She\'s always worried about her health .
11. be after 寻找，追求
The police are after the missing boy in the woods .
12. get / take off 脱下
You can get off your coat now .
Get off your wet clothes .
13. do sb a favour = do a favour for sb 帮某人的忙，给某人一恩惠
Will you do me a favour this time ?
She did me a great favour 5 years ago .
He is always ready to do his friends a favour .
当 do sb a favour 后面有不定式时常用 do sb the favour to do 或者 do sb the favour of doing 。注意冠词的变化。
Do me a favour , please . Turn the radio down .
She asked me to do her the favour of closing the door .
Will you do me the favor to lend me your dictionary ?
14. make … to one\'s (own) measure 根据某人的身材尺寸做
Mother will make new clothes for me to my own measure .
I\'d like to have the skirt made to my own measure .
It seems that this dress is made to her measure .
15. depend on / upon 依赖，依靠
Everything depends on the conditions , time and place .
Children must depend on their parents .
She is a girl to be depended on .
You can depend on us to do the work well .
16. put / write down 写下，记下; 放下
Be sure to put down every word she says on the phone .
Let me put down your telephone number before I forget it .
This bus stopped to put down passengers , but that bus stopped to pick up passengers .
辨析下列由 put 构成的搭配：
put out 扑灭。put away 把……收起来，放好。put on 上演，穿/戴上。put in / into practice 实施。put in order 整理，整顿。put off 推迟，拖延。put up 举起，建立，为……提供食宿。
17. drop in 顺便拜访
I\'ll drop in and leave the new address .
Would you like to drop in and have a cup of coffee
drop in + on sb 顺便拜访某人
drop in + at sb 顺便拜访某地
call on sb （比较正式）拜访某人
visit sb = pay a visit to sb （最正式）拜访
On my way back , I dropped in at my brother\'s house .
Let\'s drop in on Aunt Wang , shall you ?
18. show sb out 送某人出去
Wait a moment . Let me show you out . 等一下，我送你出去。
show sb in 领某人进来。。show sb around + place 领某人参观。show sb into 领某人进入。
要特别注意 show sb to the door 把某人送到门口。show sb the door 把某人赶出门去，下逐客令。
He wouldn\'t listen to my apology . He showed me the door . 他对我的道歉听也不听就把我赶出了门。
Lesson 39 & 40
1. do some research about = make some research about / on 对……进行调查研究
They have done some research about free markets in this city for some time .
They have done a great deal of research on that subject .
research 虽然可以用复数，但其前不用 two , three , many , several , 但可以加 some 。可以用：do two pieces / items of research 做两项研究工作。
research 后可以接介词 on , about , into 。如：
He has made scientific researches on atom for ton years . 他从事原子科学研究已十年了。
2. offer the best advice and service 提供最好的建议和服务
3. do up 扎好，扣好，包好，整好，打扮。
You\'ve done up your buttons the wrong way . 你把钮扣扣错了。
She went to the mirror to do up her hair .
They did up all the old newspapers and put then in a separate room .
Mary has done herself up for the palace ball .
4. be suitable for + ing / sth 适合于，宜于
These story-books are suitable for children to read .
This kind of food is unsuitable for the patients .
Is he suitable / fit for this job ?
5. understand about … 懂得有关……
对比：Do you understand the meaning ? 你明白/ 理解那个意思吗？
Do you understand about space ? 你了解有关太空的情况吗 ？
6. take sb seriously 对某人认真接待，重视某人
It is foolish of you not to take this boss seriously .
7. (and) what is worse = to make matters worse 更糟糕的是
What was worse , this wine was not at all suitable for drinking with a meal .
He felt very hungry . What\'s worse , he had no money on him .
It got dark , and what was worse , we lost our way in the forest .
8. give sb the right / wrong change 给某人对/错钱
9. keep back 扣下，止住，隐瞒，留在后面
The boss kept back $30 from her pay without any reason . 老板无缘无故地从她的工资中扣掉30美元。
On hearing the news , the woman couldn\'t keep back her tears .
There\'s no need to keep it back from you .
10. enjoy equal rights 享有平等的权利
In China women enjoy equal rights with men .
11. fight sb to the end 同某人血战到底
No matter how powerful the enemy seems , we must fight them to the end .
12. know little about 对……知之甚少
13. in the world = on earth = completely 完全地，究竟，到底
14. get caught in 遇到，挂住
Her dress got caught on a nail .
They got caught in the rain the day before yesterday .
15. come off 脱离，掉下来
The branches have come off the trees .
16. in the same order 以相同的顺序
17. as usual 和往常一样，照例
As usual , he got up very early .
Only a week after the fire in the store , it was doing business as usual .
●对 as if 用法的探微
本单元的语法学习是掌握 as if 的用法。as if 是连词词组，相当于 as though , 意为\"好像，好似\"，引导表语从句和状语从句。学习中应注意如下四点：
1 . as if 引导表语从句。
as if 引导表语从句时，可以和 as though 互换，其句型为：\"It looks / seem as if …\"，其中 it 本身无词义，是无人称代词，looks / seems 是连系动词，as if 引导表语从句。例如：
It looks / seems as if you have got no experience . 看来你似乎并没有经验。
2 . as if 引导方式状语从句。
as if 引导的方式状语从句中，从句中的动词一般要用虚拟语气。若表示与现在事实相反的主观设想，动词用过去式 (be 用 were ，适用于各种人称)；若表示与过去事实相反的主观设想，动词用\"had + 过去分词\"形式。例如：
He acted as if he were smoking . 他那举动好像他抽烟似的。
They talked as if they had been friends for years . 他们说话很亲热，就像多年的老朋友似的。
3 . 如果主句的谓语动词是过去式，从句中的动词往往可以用陈述语气，不用虚拟语气。例如：
I heard a noise as if she was crying . 我听到一种声音，好象她在哭泣似的。
He walked past me as if I didn\'t exist . 他从我身旁经过时，好象我不存在似的。
4 . as if 引起从句不用虚拟语气，用陈述语气的情况有：
如果句子的谓语动词是连系动词 look , feel , seem , taste , smell 等时，从句往往用陈述语气。
It looks as if we shall have to walk home . 看来我们得步得回家了。
He looks as if he is going to smile . 他看起来象要微笑似的。
The astronauts feel as if they are being crushed against the spaceship floor . 宇航员们感到他们好象是被压在船舱上了。
He walks as if he were drunk . (没有醉酒)
He is walking this way and that as if he is drunk . (醉酒的可能性很大)
● No matter + 疑问词及其它
本单元的另一个语法学习项目是 no matter + 疑问词。一般说来，No matter + 疑问词(what , when , etc . )表示\"不管(无论)什么，何时\"等等。这种结构在句中主要作用是来引导让步状语从句。
No matter what happened , he wouldn\'t say a word . 无论发生什么事，他都守口如瓶。
No matter what difficulties she met , she was going to be a singer . 不管会遇到什么困难，她决意要当歌唱家。
No matter how busy he was , he always came to see me . 无论他多么忙还总是来看我。
在引导让步状语从句时，与上述结构有相同意思和用法的结构是：疑问句 + ever。
Whatever happened , he would not say a word .
不过，在使用疑问句 + ever 时，有以下几点用法需要注意。
★ 引导主语从句或宾语从句时，只能用\"疑问词 + ever \"，而不能用\"no matter + 疑问词\"。
Whoever smokes here will be punished . 无论谁在这抽烟都要受到惩罚。
Beggars will eat whatever they are given . 饥不择食。
★\"疑问词 + ever\"可以用作修饰名词的关系形容词。
Take whatever books you like best . 拿你最喜欢的书吧。
★\"疑问词 + ever \"搭配连用时，可用来加强语气，用在特殊问句中，表示\"到底、究竟(= at all)的意思。
What ever do you want ? 你到底要些什么 ?
How ever did I forget it ? 我怎么竟然把它忘了 ?
★\"no matter\"可以单独用在句中或用作表语，意思是 it doesn\'t matter (不要紧)，never mind (没关系)。
It makes no matter whether he likes it or not . 他喜欢不喜欢都没有关系。
It is no matter whether you get there early or late . = It doesn\'t matter whether you get there early or late . 你早晚到那儿都没关系。
No matte , madam . 不要紧，夫人。
★ No matter 与 who , what , where , when…. 连用时，从句的时态用一般现在时表示将来。
No matter where you go , she\'ll love you . 无论你走到哪里，她都会爱你的。
★\"no matter + 疑问词\"放在句末时，往往不需要动词跟在后面。
I\'ll always believe you , no matter what . (不用 happen)不论发生什么，我都会相信你的。
用\"no matter + 疑问词\"或\"疑问词 + ever\"填空
1 . ______ you go , you\'ll find your friends .
2 . I\'ll eat _______ you gave me .
3 . _______ he says , I\'ll do it .
4 . _______ he is in trouble , I\'ll be ready to help him .
5 . _______ she says should be considered .
6 . The teacher will give a medal to _______ studies hardest .
7 . You may take ______ gifts you want .
8 . _______ made you so angry ?
9 . _______ promise to buy you a car ?
10 . ______ have you made so great progress ?
11. baggage it is , it will be kept until the owner returns .
答案：1 . Wherever / No matter where 2 . whatever 3 . Whatever / No matter what 4 . Whenever / No matter when 5 . Whatever 6 . whoever 7 . whatever 8 . What ever / Who ever 9 . Who ever 10 . How ever 11. No matter whose
◇ 用连词 though 和 although，译成汉语为\"虽然……但是……\"。后者的语气稍正式些。要注意的是：英语中用了 though (although)，在主句中不要再加 but 。但他们可以与副词 still 和 yet 等连用，加强语气。
Although it was quite late , we were still working in the fields . 虽然时间很晚了，但我们还在田里工作着。
◇ 用 if 或 even if , 译成汉语为\"即使……\"。
If we failed in this English examination , at least we did our best . 即使我们在这次英语考试中失败我们至少尽了最大努力。
I\'ll go even if it rain . 即使天下雨，我也要去。
◇ 用 whether ，译成汉语为\"不论\"。
Whether it may rain or not , I\'ll do morning exercises . 不论天下雨不下雨，我都做早操。
◇ 用 even when ，译成汉语为\"纵然……\"等含义。
Even when it was raining heavily , he refused to take an umbrella . 纵然天在下大雨，他也拒绝带雨伞。
◇ 用 while , 它和 if , when 所引出的让步状语从句是通过连词在句中表达的内容与主句的内容在意义上相反。
While I appreciated (重视) the honour , I could not accept the position . 尽管我 重视荣誉，但是我不能接受那个职位。
◇ 用 as ，但语序要倒装。
Poor as he is ( = Though he is poor) , he is honest . 虽然他贫穷，但他诚实。
◇ 用连接代词(副词) whatever , whichever , whoever , wherever , whenever 和 however 等来引导让步状语从句。
Whatever happens , (=No matter what) , we\'ll carry on the experiment . 不管怎么样，我们要继续试验。
He will never succeed , however hard he tries . 无论他如何努力尝试，他都不会成功。
● 条件在哪里 ？
1 . Without electricity human life would be quite different today .
2 . Given more attention , the trees could have grown better .
以上两句都是虚似条件句，但在这些句子却看不到 if 引导的条件状语从句，那么，它们的条件在哪里呢 ?
1 . 在 without 等引导的介词短语里，without 是最常见的用来表示条件的介词，意思是\"若没有\"等。
Plants couldn\'t grow without air . 没有空气植物就不能生活。(without air = if there weren\'t air)
Without your advice , he couldn\'t have succeeded . 若不是你的忠告，他不可能成功。(without your advice = if it hadn\'t been for your advice)
另外 under 也常用来表示条件。
We could have done better under more favorable conditions . 在更有利的条件下，我们能干得更好。
2 . 在but for 或 except for 引导的短语里，but for 与 except for 意义接近，可译作\"要不是……\"，等于 if it hadn\'t been for 。
But for the rain , we should have had a pleasant journey . 要不是下雨， 我们旅途愉快的。
But for your coming , I should have been very lonely . 要不是你来，我会感到寂寞的。
Except for you , I should be dead by now . . 要不是因为你，我活不到现在。
She would have left her husband except for the children . 若不是为了孩子，她早就离开她丈夫了。
3 . 用分词表示。
Invited , I would have come with you . (=If I had been invited , I would … )要是受到邀请，我会跟你一块去的。
I\'d come and see you in Austria , given the chance . (= … if I were given the chance . )有机会的话，我会到奥地利去看你。
4 . 隐含在 but 引导的并列句中。
We would have given you a ride this morning , / but the car was full . ( = … this morning if the car hadn\'t been full . )今天上午我们本可以让你搭我们的车的，但车上人满了。
He could have passed the driving test , but he was too nervous . 他原本能够通过驾驶考试的，不过他太紧张了。
5 . 隐含在副词 otherwise (否则，不然的话，等于 if not)。
It snowed heavily , Otherwise , I could have arrived earlier . 天下了大雪，不然的话，我会早到的。(此处，otherwise = if it hadn\'t snowed heavily)
6 . 隐含在 but that 引导的从句里。这里 but 为介词，but that 的意思是\"若不是……\"。
I\'d have come with you but that I was so busy . (= I\'d have come with you if I hadn\'t been so busy . )我要是不忙，会跟你一块儿去的。
He would have helped us but that he was short of money . (= He would have helped us if he hadn\'t been short of money . )要不是那时他缺钱，他会帮助我们的。
7 . 隐含在上下文的语境中。
－ We could have walked to the station . It was so near . 我们本可以步行去车站，它这么近。
－ Yes . A taxi wasn\'t necessary . 对，当时乘出租车是不必要的。 (MET\'92)
I would have acted as he did . 我不会象他那样干的。(隐含的条件是：\"如果我要干的活if I had done it。\")
Before liberation , years like these would have meant certain death for many people . Many would have become beggars and others would have been compelled to sell their children .
A Bullet in Mr Hand\'s Back
Mr Hand was very strong when he studied in a middle school . He liked (1) and his favourite game was running . So he won several (2) at the sports meetings . He had hoped to go to college before the (3) broke out . He was told to join the army and he (4) the front . He was very brave and was hardly (5) anything . But one day he was badly wounded and his (6) sent him to the field hospital at once . The doctors tried their best to (7) him , but a bullet (子弹) was in his back and they couldn\'t bring it out when he was being (8) on . Having come out of hospital , Mr Hand was (9) by a police station . He worked hard but he often had a (10) in his back and had to go to the hospital . But the (11) in his town could not help him and advised him to go to a (12) hospital in the capital . He (13) their suggestion and started . His friends saw him off at the (14) . As the planes were often hijacked (劫持) , at the (15) he was stopped and the policemen told him to hand over all his things that were made of (16) .
\"I\'m sorry to tell you , sir , \"said Mr Hand . \"I can\'t (17) you unless you use knives ! \"
\"Are you having a (18) with us , sir ? \"called out an officer .
\"Don\'t be (19) , sir , \"Mr Hand said with a smile . \"I\'m trying to have the bullet (20) out ! \"
Having heard his explanation , the officer let him in .
1 . A . lessons B . sports C . reading D . writing
2 . A . medals B . chances C . plans D . projects
3 . A . hire B . earthquake C . war D . flood
4 . A . left B . was left C . sent to D . was sent to
5 . A . afraid of B . tired of C . in need of D . interested in
6 . A . officers B. officials C . soldiers D . secretaries
7 . A . rescue B . save C . encourage D . explain
8 . A . examined B . checked C . operated D . treated
9 . A . borrowed B . employed C . stationed D . elected
10 . A . mark B . disease C . pain D . result
11 . A . doctors B . scientists C . folks D . relatives
12 . A . near B . old C . good D . better
13 . A . accepted B .received C . appreciated D . thanked
14 . A . railway station B . airport C . port D . bus stop
15 . A . plane B . office C . exit D . entrance
16 . A . medal B . model C . metal D . plastic
17 . A . see B . look at C . hear D . listen to
18 . A . joke B . arguing C . problem D . communicating
19 . A . sad B . afraid C . angry D . astonished
20 . A . sent B . brought C . finding D . dug
〖答案〗 1 . B 2 . A 3 . C 4 . D 5 . A 6 . C 7 . B 8 . D 9 . B 10 . C 11 . A 12 . D 13 . A 14 . B 15 . D 16 . C 17 . D 18 . A 19 . C 20 . B
〖释疑〗1. 从下一句 his favourite game was running 可以确定应选 sports 。2. 在运动回上自然是获得奖章，故选 medals 。3. 从上下文可以知道他不是生长在和平的年代（He was told to join the army .），故选war 。4. 保家卫国就会被派往前线，所以选D。5. 从very brave 和 hardly 可以知道他英勇无畏，选A。6. 在战场受伤只能是战友们伸出友爱的手把他送到战地医院，故只能选 C。7. 受重伤已经脱离在战场的险境，面临的就是抢救他的性命，rescue 是营救，save 是抢救生命，所以选 B。8. 动手术符合语境。9. 康复出院后应是被雇佣，所以选B。10. 由于前面的伏笔中有背部子弹未取出，现在疼痛是在所难免的，所以选C。11. 既然建议他当地医院无能为力，爱莫能助，只有医生说出此言。12. 从 in the capital 暗示出只有条件好的大医院才能取出他背部的子弹。并不是医院旧或离当地近就能如原以尝。13. 从started(出发)知他接受了（accepted）建议，不只是接到(received)建议。14. 下文 planes 的提示说明朋友在机场送行。15. 根据常识在入境出接受海关检查，只有 entrance 符合此意。16. 对人有危险的器物恐怕金属类的比较现实，故选 metal。17. 幽默在于 Mr Hand 并没有什么恶意，自己身上的子弹只有用手术刀才能解决问题。可对方却产生理解上的偏差，故用listen to sb 表达服从之意。18. 从检查人员的大声喊叫（called out）中可以感受到请Mr Hand 不要开玩笑而妨碍公事。19. Mr Hand 一看对方脸色和反应不对劲，知道自己的话引起了误会，故笑容满面（with a smile）地向怒气冲冲的警察们解释说明。故选C。20. have sth + done 是让……被。bring out 取出。dig out 不符合实际。
世界名人系列 NMET阅读理解 (2)
When Abraham Lincoln took office in March of 1861 , James Buchanan said to him, \"If you are as happy on entering the White House as I\'m leaving it , you are the happiest man in this country . \" Difficult times lay ahead for Lincoln , and both men knew it . Seven Southern States had already left the Union , four more states would soon follow them . The start of the Civil War was only weeks away . Many people doubted (怀疑) Lincoln\'s ability to pull the Union together . He was just a country lawyer . He had only a few years of schooling , and he had served one term in Congress (国会) . His only real fame came from a series of debates (辩论) over slavery . Lincoln\'s firm s
高二英语第十单元At the Tailor\s Shop (在裁店缝)
时间： 2008-08-03 栏目： 高二英语教案