文件 high1 unit24.1.doc
标题 The Secret of Farming
【 抛砖引玉 】
Ⅰ . 词汇学习
be busy with , loaf , fork , farming , keep , knock out of , condition , point out , turn over , gardening , go against , year after year , agree to do sth . , now and then , give a talk , grain , experience , rough , wine , steel , flour , develop , plough
Ⅱ . 交际英语
1 . It\'s a beautiful day today .
2 . It\'s going to be dry and sunny for the next two days .
3 . What\'s the weather going to be like at the weekend ?
4 . They say it\'s going to be wet and windy .
Ⅲ . 语法学习
1 . 直接引语是陈述句
如果引用的句子原来是一个陈述句，变为间接引语时，在引语的开头用连词 that 来引导 ( 在口语中 that 常省去 ) ，要注意从句中人称、时态、代词、状语等相应变化。如：
“You are really my best friend , ”Tom said to me . → Tom said that I was really his best friend .
“I will come here again tomorrow , ”he said . → He said he would go there again the nest day .
He said : “the best seed - heads should be hung up to dry . ”→ He said that the best seed-heads should be hung up to dry .
2 . 直接引语是疑问句
①如果引用的句子原来是一个一般疑问句，变成间接引语时，须用从属连词 if 或 whether 来引导 ( 不再用 that 作连词 ) 。
②直接引语如果特殊疑问句，变成间接引语时，原疑问句中的疑问词 who , whose , what , which , where , why , how 等就成了引导间接引语的连词。
He asked , “Is it raining now ? ”他问，“现在在下雨吗 ? ”→ He asked whether / if it was raining then . 他问当时是否在下雨。
The man asked me , “How old are you ? ”→ The man asked me how old I was .
They asked him , “When do you harvest the wheat ? ”→ They asked him when he harvested the wheat .
I asked the man , “Who are you ? ”→ I asked the man who he was .
The teacher asked her , “Why did you come ? ”→ The teacher wondered why she had come .
3 . 直接引语是祈使句
如果引用的句子原来是一个祈使句，变为间接引语时，须将祈使句的动词原形变为动词不定式。并在动词不定式前用 tell ( 命令 ) ，ask ( 请求 ) , order ( 命令 ) 等及物动词加宾语。如果祈使句为否定式，则在不定式前面加 not 。如：
He said to the girl , “Do it at once . ”→ He ordered the girl to do it at once .
“Be quiet ! ”I told the children . → I told the children to be quiet .
He said to farmers , “Do things at the right time of the year . ”→ He told farmers to do things at the right time of the year .
“Don\'t grow plants in the same place year after year . ”the farmer said . →The farmer told me not to grow plants in the same place year after year .
He said , “Don\'t talk ! ”→ He told us not to talk .
4 . 有些句子虽以疑问形式出现，但并非提出询问，而是表示请求、建议、劝告等意思。这种问句通常也采取 ask , advise + 宾语 + 不定式结构来转为间接引语。如：
“Could you lend me a bike ? ”he said . → He asked me to lend him my bike .
“Would you mind waiting a moment ? ” → He asked me to wait a moment .
“Why don\'t you go there by plane ? ” → He advised me to go there by plane .
What about having a walk ? → He suggested having a walk .
【 指点迷津 】
先请看 SEFC IB Lesson 91 中的一句话：Today you can either fly to Abu Simbel or you can take a boat from across the lake . 今天你既可以乘飞机去阿布辛波古庙，
该句中“from across the lake”为“介词 + 介词短语”结构，这一结构是英语介词用法中较为特殊的现象，其目的主要是为了使所表达的意思更确切、更全面。一般语法书对此很少涉及，但我们在学习中时常碰到。现将常见的“介词 + 介词短语”结构举例说明如下。
1 . from + 介词短语。
“from + 介词短语”是“介词 + 介词短语”结构中最常见的一个，其后可接的另一个介词短语至少有十个以上。
The old man looked at me from above his glasses .
He said hello to me from across the room .
The little boy came out from behind the door .
They came from beyond the sea .
He heard the shouting from somewhere down the corridor .
Take the kettle from off the stove .
We heard voices from over the fence .
The snake crawled out from under the table .
2 . except + 介词短语。
except 后常接介词 at , by , from , in , on , to 等引导的短语。
I never saw Mr White except at parties .
You could never have lost your way , except by your own carelessness .
I take no orders , except from the king .
I can take my holidays at any time , except in August .
No admittance , except on business .
We went nowhere , except to school .
3 . till / until + 介词短语。
till / until 后总是接介词 after 引导的短语。
I stayed till after ten o\'clock .
It was not till after midnight that my visit came to an end .
【 学法指要 】
1 . loaf 一个面包，一条面包
He bought two loaves of bread .
〖 点拨 〗loaf 的复数为 loaves .
2 . grain 谷物，谷类，谷粒
China grows most of the grains of the world .
The chickens ate the grains of corn on the ground .
a few grains of rice 几颗米 / grains of wheat 麦粒
3 . wine 酒，葡萄酒，果酒
I am no judge of wine .
Do you prefer French wine or Italian wine ?
4 . develop 发展，开发
He developed the little shop into a big store .
The city has developed into the center of industry .
We must develop the natural resources of our country .
〖 点拨 〗developing 发展中的，developed 发达的
5 . experience ( 不可数 ) 经验、 ( 可数 ) 经历
He has no experience in teaching English .
She was a housewife of experience .
He had a pleasant experience .
6 . keep ( kept , kept ) 培育，饲养，养活
He made a living by keeping bees .
He keeps a large family .
7 . condition 条件，状况
They were working in difficult conditions .
Health is one of the conditions of success in life .
The road is in good condition .
8 . rough 粗糙的，不平的
My hands are rough with work .
The road is very rough .
1 . be made from / be made of / be made up of / be made in / make A from B / be made into
be made from “由……制成”，指从成品上看不出原材料是什么 ( 改变了本质 ) 。如：
Paper is made from wood .
Wine is made from rice .
be made of “由……制成”，指用原材料制成东西后，从成品上还能看得出原料是什么 ( 不改变木质，只改变了形状 ) 。如：
The bridge is made of steel .
Cloth is made of cotton , wool , silk and other materials .
A be made into B . 意为把 A 制成 B，A 指原料，B 指成品，制出的成品可以是看得出原材料的，也可以是看不出原材料的。如：
Wood can be made into paper / desk .
Now chemists make coal tar into hundreds of useful things .
be made up of ―― 由……构成 / 组成
A car is made up of many different parts .
This medical team is made up of ten famous doctors .
be made in 指“在 ( 某地 ) 制造”，如：
This TV set is made in China .
2 . knock sth . out of ……把某物从……中敲出来
In the following spring , the seeds should be knocked out of the seed-heads and sown . 到第二年春天把种子从谷穗里敲出来，然后再播种。
He knocked the gun out of the enemy\'s hand . 他打掉了敌人手中的枪。
The sudden blow knocked two teeth out of his mouth . 我突然的一击把两颗牙齿从他口里打了出来。
knock 构成的短语还有 knock at ( 敲…… ) ，knock against ( 撞击 ) , knock down ( 撞倒 ) ，knock over ( 撞翻 ) 等。
Who is knocking at / on the door ?
The child knocked his head against the wall .
The cow knocked the basket over .
3 . point out 指出；使注意
1 ) point out that ……
He pointed out that it was important to remove weeds before sowing seed in the soil . 他指出，播种前清除杂草是很重要的。
At the meeting , he pointed out that agriculture should be put at the first place .
2 ) point …… out 或 point out …指出 ( 某人或某事 )
He quickly pointed out a mistake .
Can you point out the finest pictures to me ? = Can you point me out the finest pictures ?
4 . turn over 翻转
The soil should also be turned over with a fork so that the weeds would be destroyed . 我应当把耙子翻地，以除杂草。
The doctor turned him over and looked at his back .
The oil lamp was turned over and a fire started .
5 . go against 违背；不利于
If you go against nature and do things at the wrong time of year , you will have to do more work and the results will not be so good . 如果你违背自然，不适时耕作，你就得付出更多的劳动，而成果却不见得好。
If you do that , you\'ll go against your parents\' wishes .
His opinion is going against us .
The game went against Tom\'s team .
6 . year after year与 year by year
1 ) year after year 年复一年地；一年又一年 ( 侧重重复的动作 )
Do not plant , for example , rice year after year in the same field . 例如，在同一块田里不要年复一年地种稻谷。
Year after year we have had a Christmas card from Dick .
2 ) year by year 逐年 ( 随着年数的推移逐渐变化，侧重变化性 )
The boy grows tall year by year .
7 . agree to do sth . 同意做某事
Do they agree to sow wheat close together ? 他们同意密植小麦吗 ?
agree 也可作不及物动词，既可以单独使用又可以与不同的介词如 with / to / on 等连用。
He doesn\'t agree ( with me ) .
They agreed to my suggestion at last .
We agreed on an early start .
8 . now and then ( = at times ) 有时；不时地
Is it necessary to remove weeds now and then ?
We go to the cinema now and then .
1 . year after year 年复一年地，逐年，年年
Don\'t plant rice year after year in the same field .
Year after year pollution is worsening .
We have been to that place for a holiday year after year .
Year after year I have had a birthday present from my parent .
注意：year by year 也是“逐年地，年复一年”之意。但 year after year 有强调“重复”之意，而 year by year 则有强调“逐年变化”之意。如：
They kept up a steady rise in production year by year .
Production costs go down year by year .
The boy grows taller year by year .
2 . agree to do sth . ―― 同意做某事
They agreed to leave at once .
辨析：①agree to sth . 是“同意 ( 赞成 ) 某事”，后面接表示“提议”、“办法”、“计划”等词。如：
I agree to the proposal ( the plan ) .
Do you agree to this arrangement ?
Mary\'s father has agreed to her marrying John .
②agree on sth . 指“ ( 对事情 ) 意见一致”，主语常是协商人或单位，后面常接表示具体协议的文件、计划、行动等名词。如：
Both parties agree on these terms .
After discussion the two sides agree on a cease - fire .
We agreed on making an early start .
③agree with 指“同意”，“赞成”某人的“意见”，“看法”。它还有“与……一致”“ ( 气候，食物等 ) 适合”的意思：如：
We all agree with her .
I quite agree with what you say .
The verb must agree with the subject in person and number .
Your story agrees with what I have already heard .
That fish I had for supper doesn\'t agree with me .
The climate here doesn\'t agree with him .
His words do not agree with his actions .
3 . While people in other countries in the world were trying to catch wild animals and birds . . .
When you plough the soil , plough deeply the first time and less deeply the second time .
辨析：while , when 与 as 的句法作用
三者均可引导时间状语从句，但涵义不尽相同。while 的含义是“during the time that”表示时段或过程，强调主句与从句的行为或状态同时发生或存在，从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的。
* While I was reading , the telephone rang .
When 的含义是“at or during the time that”既可用于指时间一点 ( 从句谓语需用终止性动词 ) ，也可用于指时间段 ( 从句谓语需用延续性动词 ) 。换言之，有时可与 while 通用，有时则不可。例如：1 ) When ( While ) I was busy in the kitchen , someone knocked at the door . 2 ) When ( 不用 While ) I woke up , Mum was preparing breakfast .
as 常与 when 或 while 通用，但它更侧重主句与从句中的行为同时发生，通常译作“随着……”“或一边……一边……”
例如：As you grow , you know more and more .
when 和 while 可用作并列连词。when 是“在那时”或“这时突然” ( and just at that time ) 的意思，用来连接两个并列句。
An Arab was walking along through the desert when he met two men .
Some like collecting stamps , while others like planting flowers .
4 . Here are five pieces of advice collected from Jia Sixie\'s book Qi Min Yao Shu . 这里是从贾思勰的《齐民要术》书中摘录的五条意见。
Here are / is…是以副词开头的句子，谓语动词要倒装。又如：
Here is the stamp you want . 这是你要的邮票。( 正常语序是：The stamp you want is here . )
Here is the ticket for you .
Here are some examples .
Here comes the bus . 公共汽车来了。
①在以 out , in , here , there , up , down , away , off 等副词开头的句子，通常引起主谓倒装。又如：
Out went the students when the bell rang .
Out rushed the boy .
In came the teacher and the lesson began .
Down jumped the monkey from the tree .
Away hurried the hunters .
There goes the bell . 打铃了。
②如果主语是人称代词，主语和谓语的位置不变 ( 不倒装 ) ，只将副词放在句首。如：
Out they went when the bell rang .
In he came and the lesson began .
Away they hurried .
Here he comes .
5 . He pointed out that it was important to remove weeds before sowing seeds in the soil . 他指出，播种前清除杂草是很重要的。
这是一个复合句，主句是 He pointed out ( 他指出 ) ，后接 that 引导的宾语从句。宾语从句是一个形式主语 it 结构，真正的主语是后面的不定式短语 to remove weeds ( 除草 ) ，介词短语 before sowing seeds in the soil 作后置时间状语，修饰不定式短语。若详细再分解，在介词短语中，sowing 是个动名词，sowing seeds 作介词 before 的宾语，in the soil 作 sowing seeds 的状语。
6 . Your work will be less and the results will be better . 你就能获得事半功倍的效果。
这个句子前后用了相同的结构：will be less / will be better，以表示一种对称和对比的效果。对称指形式相似，对比指意义相反。
【 妙文赏析 】
It\'s Dangerous for Me
A man always went to the same bar at the same time every day and asked for two glasses of beer . He would drink them and then ask for two more .
One day the barman asked him :
“Why do you always ask for two glasses of beer ? Why don\'t you order one big glass instead ? ”
“Because I don\'t like to drink alone” , the man answered . “I drink with my friend . ”
But a few days later the man came in and asked for only one beer .
“Oh , has your friend died ? ”asked the barman .
“No , no . He\'s very well . This beer is for him . But I have stopped drinking . My doctor says it\'s dangerous for me . ”
【 思维体操 】
复合宾语是由宾语和宾语补足语构成的。复合宾语可分为“宾语 + 不定式、分词 ( 现在分词或过去分词 ) 、名词、形容词、介词短语、副词”六大类。你能根据汉语意思，补全句中所缺的复合宾语部分吗 ?
A . 宾语 + 动词不定式
1 . 老师请我们打扫教室。
The teacher asked _____ _____ _____ the classroom .
2 . 老板让工人们日夜工作。
The boss made _____ _____ _____ day and night .
3 . 我看见那孩子今天上午去上学了。
I saw _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ this morning .
4 . 老师告诉我们在教室里不要大声说话。
The teacher told _____ _____ _____ _____ loudly in the classroom .
B . 宾语 + 分词 ( 现在分词或过去分词 )
1 . 我听见那姑娘正在隔壁房间里唱歌。
I heard _____ _____ _____ in the next room .
2 . 他让那些灯亮了通宵。
He had _____ _____ _____ all night long .
3 . 我发现我的钢笔丢了。
I found _____ _____ _____ .
4 . 他看到那台电视机从办公室里被搬出来了。
He watched the _____ _____ _____ out of the office .
5 . 我看见那些孩子正过大街。
I saw _____ _____ _____ the street .
C . 宾语 + 名词
1 . 我们叫那只鸟波利。
We call _____ ______ _____ .
2 . 我认为吉姆是个聪明的孩子。
I think _____ a _____ _____ .
3 . 我们选迈克当我们的队长。
We made _____ _____ _____ leader .
4 . 他称自己是人民的老黄牛。
He called _____ an _____ _____ of the people .
D . 宾语 + 形容词
1 . 这消息使我们高兴。
The news made _____ _____ .
2 . 难道你不能让这些孩子们安静下来 ?
Can\'t you keep _____ _____ _____ ?
3 . 我认为这道题容易。
I think _____ _____ _____ .
4 . 我发现学好英语很重要。
I find _____ _____ _____ learn English well .
E . 宾语 + 介词短语
1 . 第二天早晨，我发现我的钢笔在床下边了。
The next morning I found _____ _____ _____ the bed .
2 . 你没看见那姑娘就在隔壁房间里吗 ?
Didn\'t you see _____ _____ just _____ the next room ?
3 . 请不要把你的书桌放在教室外边。
Please don\'t leave _____ _____ the classroom .
F . 宾语 + 副词
1 . 我去了她家，可发现她出去了。
I went to her home , but found _____ _____ .
2 . 请让他进来。
Please let _____ _____ .
3 . 他常把衣服丢在外边。
He often leaves _____ _____ _____ .
答案：A . 1 . us to clean 2 . the workers work 3 . the boy go to school 4 . us not to talk B . 1 . the girl singing 2 . the lights burning 3 . my pen lost 4 . TV set carried 5 . the children crossing C . 1 . the bird Polly 2 . Jim , clever boy 3 . Mike our team 4 . himself , old cow D . 1 . us happy 2 . these children quiet 3 . this problem easy 4 . if important to E . 1 . my pen under 2 . the girl , in 3 . your desk outside F . 1 . her out 2 . him in 3 . his clothes outside
【 心中有数 】
1 . 如果引述动词是一般现在时或一般将来时，则直接引语中的时态不变。如：
Kate always says , “I\'m growing fast . ”→Kate always says that she\'s growing fast .
He will say , “I am going to join the army when I grow up . ”→He will say that he will joing the army when he grows up .
2 . 直接引语如果是客观真理，变为间接引语，时态不变。如：
He said , “Light travels much faster than sound . ”→He said that light travels much faster than sound .
The teacher said , “The earth goes around the sun . ”→The teacher said that the earth goes around the sun .
3 . 直接引语中有确切的表示过去的时间状语，变为间接引语时，时态不变。如：
Peter said , “I was born in 1980 . ”→Peter said that he was born in 1980 .
She said to me , “I finished writing the novel on October 1 , 1998 . ”→She told me that she finished writing the novel on October 1 , 1998 .
4 . 直接引语中凡有 when , since 等引导的过去时间状语从句，在变为间接引语时，从句的时态不变。如：
Jack said , “The film had been on for five minutes when I got to the cinema . ”→Jack said that the film had been on for five minutes when he got to the cinema .
He said , “I have studied English since I was a child . ”→He said that he had studied English since he was a child .
5 . 如果直接引语是由 when 引导的特殊疑问句，且又是一般过去时，变为间接引语时，时态不变。如：
He said to me , “When did you see the film ? ”→He asked me when I saw the film .
6 . 如果直接引语中的谓语是 go 或 take，变为间接引语时不变。如：
John said , “I\'ll take her to the cinema . ”→John said that he\'d take her to the cinema .
7 . 在当地转述直接引语时，直接引语中的 here , come , bring 不变。如：
He said to me , “Please bring your dictionary here when you come . ”→He asked me to bring my dictionary here when I came . ( 在当地转述 )
8 . 如果在当天转述，yesterday , tomorrow 等时间状语也不必改变。如：
She said , “I shall go shopping tomorrow . ”→She said that she would go shopping tomorrow .
【 动手动脑 】
选择恰当的词 ( 词组 ) 填空，使句子完整、正确。
1 . be made of / from / into / up of / out of
( 1 ) The pyramids are made _____ huge stones .
( 2 ) How many states is USA made _____ ?
( 3 ) Butter is made _____ milk .
( 4 ) In America people make potatoes _____ all kinds of food .
( 5 ) Mrs White made a piece of table cloth _____ the old curtain .
2 . one ( s ) , it , that
( 1 ) The difficulty we are facing is bigger than _____ we met with last time .
( 2 ) I prefer the old designs to the new _____ .
( 3 ) This figure is a false _____ . Take _____ back and show me a real _____ .
3 . turn over / on / off / to / down / up
( 1 ) The oil lamp was turned _____ and a fire started .
( 2 ) Whenever I turned _____ him , he would turn _____ my demand .
( 3 ) Whoever leaves last is to turn _____ the lights .
4 . point out / to / at
( 1 ) It is impolite to point your fingers _____ people while speaking .
( 2 ) We must point it _____ that the old temple is still in danger .
( 3 ) The hands of the clock are pointing _____ 12 sharp .
5 . agree with / to / on ( about )
( 1 ) What he said doesn\'t agree _____ the fact .
( 2 ) We agree _____ him _____ ploughing more deep , but we don\'t agree _____ some other views of his .
6 . go against / with
( 1 ) Don\'t go _____ science or do anything _____ your will .
( 2 ) Brown shoes don\'t go well _____ a black suit .
7 . next , near
( 1 ) She had no idea where Coke lived except that his house was _____ a church .
( 2 ) The Ertan Power Station , _____ to the Changjiang Three-Gorge Project , is the greatest one of China at present .
答案与简析： 1 . ( 1 ) of ( 2 ) up of ( 3 ) from ( 4 ) into ( 5 ) out of。make 与上述介词或介词词组搭配时分别表示：make of 指原材料能辨认，make from 指原材料不能辨认，make up of “由多个元素组成”，make into “把……制作成……”，make out of “把……改制 ( 或翻新 ) ；用……制造出……”。 2 . ( 1 ) that ( 2 ) ones ( 3 ) one , it , one。指代前面提到的事、物时三者的特征是：it 指同类同物；one 指同类异物，泛指且可数，其复数形式是 ones ; that 强调同类异物，特指，不可数。 3 . ( 1 ) over ( 2 ) to , down ( 3 ) off。turn over “打翻，翻阅，翻身”，turn to “转向，求助于”，turn down “拒绝、关小”，turn off “关掉”，其反义词是 turn on。 4 . ( 1 ) at ( 2 ) out ( 3 ) to。point at “指 ( 着 ) ”，或用某物对准某人或某物，较具体；point to “指 ( 朝 ) 向”，对象较笼统，也用于钟指针的指向；point out “指出”。 5 . ( 1 ) with ( 2 ) with , on , to。agree with “同意 ( 某人 ) ，与……一
致”；agree on “就……达成一致”。 6 . ( 1 ) against , against ( 2 ) with。go against “违背，不一致”，go with “与……一致，与……相配”。 7 . ( 1 ) near ( 2 ) next。作“邻近”讲时，near 直接充当介词，next 必须与介词 to 连用，next to 还可指“仅次于”；此外，near 作副词时也可与 to 连用，但只能表空间位置的“靠近”。
【 创新园地 】
假如你是 Miss Smith 的学生，上星期你们班进行了一次郊游。郊游前，Miss Smith 在通知全班学生时，与 Jack 有一段对话。请你用自己的话把这段对话内容转述给你朋友听。(字数：100 ― 120)
Miss Smith：You know we are going for an outing tomorrow . But is everyone sure of the time and place we are to meet ?
Jack：I\'m not , Madam .
Miss Smith：I thought it might be you . Now I\'ll repeat . We\'ll meet at 9∶30 at the bus station . One more thing is that each of you should bring a bottle of hot drink and some sandwiches .
Jack：Madam , will the work we\'ve been doing have to be finished this evening ?
Miss Smith：Of course it must . There certainly won\'t be much time before we go out . By the way , have you got a map and can you understand it ?
Jack：Well , that\'s just what is worrying me most . I\'m sorry to say I can\'t even make out where the school is .
Last week we went for an outing . The day before Miss Smith asked us to remember the time and place we were to meet . But she found Jack had forgotten everything , so she told us again to meet at 9∶30 at the bus station . She also told each of us to bring a bottle of hot drink and some sandwiches .
Then Jack asked if all the work would have to be finished that evening . Miss Smith told him that there certainly wouldn\'t be much time before going out and we had to get everything ready that evening . Then she went on to ask if Jack had a map and if he could understand it . Poor Jack said that it was just what was worrying him most . He couldn\'t even make out where the school was .
高一英语第二十四单元The Secret of Farming
时间： 2008-08-03 栏目： 高一英语教案