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高一新教材备课资料(U4)

时间: 2008-08-03 栏目: 高一英语教案


Unit 4 Unforgettable experiences
1.take place的用法
take place 意为“发生;举行”,不能用于被动语态。如:
When and where will the wedding take place? 婚礼将于何时何地举行?
Great changes have taken place in my hometown.我的家乡发生了巨大的变化。
2.Hank was caught in the earthquake. 汉克被困于地透中。
be caught in (the rain, a trap)表示“遇(雨),陷入(圈套)”等。如:
Jeff was caught in the rain yesterday and had a cold. 昨天杰夫淋雨患了感冒。
I was caught in the traffic, otherwise I would have arrived on time .我遇到堵车了,要不我会准时到的。
3.marry的用法
1)marry用作动词,意为“嫁;娶;结婚”等,表示“结婚”这一动作。如:
I am going to marry John. 我要和约翰结婚了。 My uncle didn\'t marry until forty .我叔叔直到四十岁才结婚。
2)get married 表示“已结婚”这一状态。接宾语时,都要加to。如:When did you get married? 你们何时结的婚?
Steve got married to an actor last May. 史蒂夫去年五月和一位演员结婚了。Are you married or single? 你结婚了还是单身?
注意:汉语中说“和(某人结婚)”,英语中不可用“with(sb)”,而要用“to(sb)”。
4.She looked round and saw )ett running. 她环顾四周,看见杰夫正在奔跑。
1)look round 意为“转回头看;环顾;到处寻找(for)”。如:Would you like to look round?你想各处看看吗?
2)see sb. doing sth.意为“看见某人正在做某事”,现在分词表示~个主动的、正在进行的动作。如:
When I came in, I saw them reading China Daily .我进来时看见他们正在看《中国日报》。
I can\'t see myself allowing people to cheat me. 我无法想象会让人骗了。
5. She was so surprised that she couldn\'t move.她大惊讶了以致于动弹不得。
so...that...导目的状语从句,意为“如此……以致于…”,so是副词,后接形容词或副词。如:
He is so tired that he does not want to go with us.他太疲劳所以他不想和我们一起去。
She walked so fast that I couldn\' t follow her.她走得太快了以致于我跟不上她。
6. However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. 然而,转念之阎,洪水已近在眼前。
1)however用作副词时,表示前后转折关系,多用逗号与句子隔开,意为“不过;然而”。如:
I\'d like to go with you; however, my hands are full. 我很想和你、块)L去,可是我忙不过来。
We have not yet won; however, we shall try again.我们还没有取胜,不过我们还要再试一下。
2)before用作连词,后接从句时,表示“在……之前”。在不同语境中,before往往有比较灵活的译法,如“趁…”、“还没来得及…就…”、“过了…才”等。如:I must finish this letter before I go home. 我必须在回家以前写完这封信。
She had left before I could say a word.我还没来得及说话她就走开了。
The fire lasted three hours before it was put out.大火燃烧了三个小时才被扑灭。
3)be upon sb.意为“逼近”、“临近”。如:
The enemy was upon us.敌人逼近我们。 The Christmas holiday will soon be upon us.圣诞节马上就要来到了。
7.Jeff dragged her towards the house.杰夫拉赛她跑向房子。
drag, pull, push这三个词都有“拖,拉”之意,但有所不同。drag 的含义是“慢慢地而沉重的拽”,而且包含着被拖者进行着积极的或消极的阻抗或阻力;pull为通用词,常伴有状语表示拖的方向;push则表示“推;推动”。如:
They are dragging a net in fishing.他们正在拖网捕鱼。He dragged behind the others. 他在别人后面慢吞吞地走着。
That tooth should be pulled out.那颗牙齿应该拔掉。 They pushed the door open. 他们把门推开。
8. looked into 的用法
look into 意为“向……的里面看;浏览;调查”。如:The police are looking into the accident. 警方正在调查这个事故。
The soldier looked into the house, but he found nothing. 那个士兵朝屋子里边看,但什么也没有发现。
9.Another wave struck the house.另一股洪流冲击着房屋。
动词strike的含义较多,可以表示“撞击;冲击;罢工;打动;划燃;侵袭”等。其过去式是 struck,过去分词是 struck/stricken。如:Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁,趁机行事。An idea suddenly struck me. 我心中忽然产生一个念头。
SARS struck both China and some other counties in 2003 .2003年非典型肺炎袭击了中国和其他几个国家。
The workers were striking for more money. 工人们在罢工,要求增加工资。
10.There she stopped, listening to the strange sounds, 她在那儿停下来,听着奇怪的声响。
1) stop doing sth. 是“停止做某事”;stop to do sth. 是“(把原来在做的事)停下来而做某事;stop sb. (from) doing sth.是“阻止某人做某事”。如:They stopped to have a drink.他们停下来喝点饮料。It stopped raining at dawn.黎明时分雨停了。
They stopped me going out of the door. 他们阻止我出门。
2)这里listening to the strange sounds是现在分词短语作伴随状语。现在分词除了可以作伴随状语外,还可以作时间、原因、条件、结果状语等。如:The children ran out of the classroom, talking and laughing. 孩子们有说有笑地从教室跑出来。(作伴随状语)
While waiting for a bus, I met a good friend.在等车时我遇见了一位好朋友。(作时间状语)
Hearing the cry for help, they all rushed out. 听到呼救声,他们都冲了出去。(作原因状语)
His parents died, leaving him a lot of money,他的父母亲死了,给他留下很多钱。(作结果状语)
11.Tree after tree went down.... which must have been... 树一棵接一棵地倒下了 …,一定是…
这里的tree after tree 相当于 one tree after another,意为“一颗接一颗”,名词前省略冠词。又如:
She did experiment after experiment. 她做了一次又一次的试验。
Year after year they work in the fields. 他们年复一年在田地里耕作。
2)must后接不定式的完成式表示对已经发生的事情的肯定推测,意为“肯定做了某事”。如:
The door is locked. They must have been out. 门锁着,他们一定外出了。
She looks very happy today. She must have done well in the exam.她今天很高兴。她一定考得很不错。
12. Can you work out what the underlined words refer to?你能弄明自下边划线的单词指代的含义吗?
1)work out是“动词+副词”短语,意为“计算”、“估计”、“想出(办法)”、“制订”、“进展”等。如:
Together they worked out ways to solve the problem. 他们一起想出了解决问题的办法。
Has the plan been worked out? 计划制订好了吗?
We were pleased to see that things had worked out all right.我们很高兴地看到情况发展得不错。
2)refer to表示“查阅”、“提到”、“谈到”、“指的是”等。如:
When you meet a new word, you can refer to the dictionary. 遇到生词时,你可以查阅词典。
The speaker referred to his notes several times during the speech. 那位演讲者在演讲过程中几次参看讲稿。
What I have to say refers to all of you.我要说的话涉及到你们大家。
13. struggle with 与…斗争
struggle 常用作不及物动词,与介词 with, for或 against连用。如:
She struggled with/against the thief for a while.他与小偷搏斗了一会儿。
He has been struggling for success in his business. 为了事业成功,他一直努力奋斗着。
14.spends a lot of time watching TV. 花费大量时间看电视
spend time/money on sth.表示“在某方面花费时间/钱”,介词 on后接名词或代词;
spend time/money (in) doing sth.表示“花费时间/钱做某事”,介词 in可以省略,后接动名词。如:
He doesn\'t spend much time on his homework. 他花在作业上的时间不多。
How much did you spend buying / in buying the new computer?买这台新电脑花去你多少钱?
15.be far away from的用法
be far away(from...)意为“(距离……)遥远”,是模糊说法。若 away前有表示具体距离的短语时,far必须去掉。试比较:
The school is far away (from here) .学校(离这儿)很远。
The airport is about 20 kilometres away from our company. 机场距离我们公司为 20公里。
16.Looking up at.. .makes you feel so small.抬头仰望…使你感到自己很渺小。
look up意为“抬头看;仰望;(在字典里)查阅”等。如:
He looked up and found many birds flying in the sky.他抬头看,发现许多鸟儿在空中飞翔。
If you meet new words, look them up in the dictionary. 如果你遇到生词,可以查阅词典。
2)动名词可以在句中充当主语、宾语、表语等。这里“Looking up at...”短语作主语。再如:
I believe traveling in space will be easy then. 我相信到那时太空旅游会容易些。(作主语)
I\'m 16 and I like dancing and computers.我16岁,喜欢跳舞和电脑。(作宾语)
My interests are reading novels, playing football and singing songs.我的兴趣是看小说,踢足球和唱歌。(作表语)
17. They are not at all afraid of people. 它们一点也不怕人。
1) not... at all意为“一点也不;根本不”,起加强语气的作用。如:He doesn\'t smoke at all. 他从来不吸烟。
I\'m not at all sorry I came, I\'m glad! 我来了一点也不遗憾,我很高兴。
2) be afraid of 意为“害怕,担心”,后接名词、代词或现在分词;后接从句时,省略of。如:
He is afraid of his own shadow. 他连自己的影子都害怕。 I\'m afraid that I don\'t understand you.抱歉,我不明白你的意思。
18.take a photo of 给…照相
take a photo of 还可以说 take photos /picture of, of后接拍照的对象。如:
They had many photos taken on the Great Wall. 他们在长城上拍了很多照片。
Can I take a photo of you? 我可以给你照张相吗?
19. on the way to + 名词/代词;on the way + 副词“在去…途中”
on the way to. . .意为“在路上”、“在途中”,to后接名词或代词;后接副词时,不可有to。如:On the way, a young man waved to me.路上,一个年轻人挥手招呼我。On the way home, he asked Jenny if she had enjoyed the speech. 在回家的路上,他问詹妮是否喜欢这次讲演 I fell on the way to school. 我在上学的路上跌倒了。
20. Don\' t forget to bring your camera. 别忘记带上相机。
forget 意为“忘记”,后可接名词、代词、不定式或现在分词形式。注意:forget to do 表示“忘记去做(还没有做)”, forget doing表示“忘记做了某事(已经做过)”。如:I have forgotten her name.我忘记了她的名字。
She nearly forgot to give him a tip for his service. 她几乎忘记给他的服务付小费。
I shall never forget hearing her singing that song.我永远不会忘记听她唱那支歌时的情景。
【语法点评] 定语从句常见错误例析
定语从句是中学英语中较难掌握的从句之一,其规则繁杂,难以记忆,因而同学们在运用过程中常出现错误。现归类分析如下: 一、关系代词错用 A) that和 which
1. 误 : I\' ve read all the books which you lent me. 正 : I\' ve read all the books that you lent me.
析:定语从句的先行词被all,some,any,no,little,few,much,very等修饰时,关系代词要用 that。
2.误: This is the last lesson which Mr Green taught us.正 : This is the last lesson that Mr Green taught us.
析:定语从句的先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词要用that。
3. 误: Is there anything else which I can do for you?正: Is there anything else that I can do for you?
析:定语从句的先行词是everything,anything,nothing等不定代词时,关系代词要that.
4. 误: They talked about the persons and things which they remembered in the old days.
正 : They talked about the persons and things that they remembered in the old days.
析:定语从句的先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词要用that。
5. 误 : My hometown is no longer the place which it used to be. 正: My hometown is no longer the place that it used to be.
析:定语从句中,关系代词充当从句的表语时,该关系代词要用that。
6. 误; Dinner starts with a small dish, that is often called a starter.正 : Dinner starts with a small dish, which is often called a starter.
析:关系代词that不能用于非限制性定语从句,但which可以。
7. 误: He lives in the room, the window of that faces the south.正 : He lives in the room, the window of which faces the south.
析:关系代词that不能用于“介词十关系代词”结构,但which可以。
B) who 和 whom
8. 误 : The man with who I worked has left.正: The man with whom I worked has left.
析:关系代词 who指人,作主语; whom也指人,但作宾语。在“介词十关系代词”结构中,先行词是人,关系词用whom;先行词是物,关系词用which
二、关系代词漏用
9. 误: The student is standing there is our monitor.
正: The student who/that is standing there is our monitor.正 : The student standing there is our monitor.
f 析:定语从句中关系代词作主语时不能省略。这里也可以把定语从句改为现在分词形式作定语。
三、关系代词与关系副词混淆
A) that/which 和 when
10. 误: Do you still remember the day when we first spent together?
正 : Do you still remember the day (that/which) we first spent together?
析:先行词是时间名词时,定语从句的引导词用关系代词还是关系副词“when”,取决于该先行词在从句中充当主语l宾语还是时间状语。这里先行词the day在从句中作宾语,关系代词可省略。
B) that/which 和 where
11. 误 : I\' ll never forget the school where we visited last Monday.
正 : I\' ll never forget the school (that/which) we visited last Monday.
析:先行词是地点名词时,定语从句的引导词用关系代词还是关系副词“where”,取决于该先行词在从句中充当主语l宾语还是地点状语。这里先行词 the school在从句中作宾语,关系代词可省略。
C) that/which 和 why
12.误 :Is this the reason why he gives for being late?正: Is this the reason (that/which) he gives for being late?
析:先行词是reason时,定语从句的引导词用关系代词还是关系副词“why”,取决于该先行词在从句中充当主语/宾语还是原因状语。这里先行词 the reason在从句中作宾语,关系代词可省略。
四、定语从句主谓不一致
13 误 : This is one of the rooms that is free now.正 : This is one of the rooms that are free now.
析:当定语从句的先行词是one of…结构时,先行词为of后的复数名词或代词,从句谓语用复数形式。
14.误: Professor Johnson is the only one of the experts who know a little Chinese.
正: Professor Johnson is the only one of the experts who knows a little Chinese.
析:当定语从句的先行词是the (only/very) one of…结构时,先行词为 one,从句谓语用单数形式。
五、定语从句重复用词
A)关系词与疑问词重复
15. 误: Who is the man who shook hands with you just now?正 : Who is the man that shook hands with you just now?
析:若主句以疑问词who开头,为了避免重复,定语从句的引导词要用that代替。
16.误: Which is the book which you want to borrow from me?正: Which is the book that you want to borrow from me?
析:若主句以疑问词which开头,为了避免重复,定语从句的引导词要用that代替。
B)关系词与被替换词重复
17. 误: This is the jacket which I bought it last month.正 ; This is the jacket which I bought last month.
析:关系代词Which已经在从句中充当宾语,it是多余的。
18. 误: Is this the museum where Jane has worked there for twenty years?
正: Is this the museum where Jane has worked for twenty years?
析:关系副词where已经在从句中充当地点状语,there是多余的。
六、定语从句介词错用
19.误. :Is this the CD player in which you spent 500 yuan?正 : Is this the CD player on which you spent 500 yuan ?
析:有时,需要根据从句谓语动词的习惯搭配来判断具体的介词。这里是 spent...on+名词”的搭配。
20. 误 : The baby of whom she takes good care is ten months old.正 : The baby whom she takes good care of is ten months old.
析:含有介词的短语动词一般不能拆开使用。又如 look after, care for, refer to等。